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- Test Bank Of Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing 10th Edition by Marilyn J. Hockenberry
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- Download Test bank for Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing 9th Edition by Hockenberry
- Meningitis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
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- 249107339 Chapter 010Wong s Essentials of Pediatrics Test Bank
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Epidemiology is the science of population health applied to the detection of morbidity and mortality in a population. It identifies the distribution and causes of diseases across a population. Nursing process is a systematic problem-solving approach for the delivery of nursing care. A papule is elevated; palpable; firm; circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter; and brown, red, pink, tan, or bluish red.
A plaque is an elevated, flat-topped, firm, rough, superficial papule greater than 1 cm in diameter. It may be coalesced papules. A nodule is elevated, 1 to 2 cm in diameter, firm, circumscribed, palpable, and deeper in the dermis than a papule.
A vesicle is elevated, circumscribed, superficial, less than 1 cm in diameter, and filled with serous fluid. A cyst is elevated, circumscribed, palpable, encapsulated, and filled with liquid or semisolid material. A papule is elevated, palpable, firm, circumscribed, less than 1 cm in diameter, and brown, red, pink, tan, or bluish red.
A pustule is elevated, superficial, and similar to a vesicle but filled with purulent fluid. A macule is flat; nonpalpable; circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter; and brown, red, purple, white, or tan. A patch is a flat, nonpalpable, and irregularly shaped macule that is greater than 1 cm in diameter. Scale is heaped-up keratinized cells, flaky exfoliation, irregular, thick or thin, dry or oily, varied in size, and silver white or tan. A major nursing consideration related to bacterial skin infections, such as impetigo contagiosa, is to prevent the spread of the infection and complications.
This is done by thorough hand washing before and after contact with the affected child. Corticosteroids are not indicated in bacterial infections. Dressings are usually not indicated.
The undermined skin, crusts, and debris are carefully removed after softening with moist compresses. A Wood lamp is used to detect fluorescent materials in the skin and hair.
It is used in certain disease states, such as tinea capitis. Streptococci, staphylococci, and Haemophilus influenzae are the organisms usually responsible for cellulitis. Herpes zoster is the virus associated with varicella and shingles.
Test Bank Of Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing 10th Edition by Marilyn J. Hockenberry
Human papillomavirus is associated with various types of human warts. Lymphangitis is frequently seen in cellulitis. If it is present, hospitalization is usually required for parenteral antibiotics. Lymphangitis is not associated with folliculitis, impetigo, or staphylococcal scalded skin. Human warts are caused by the human papillomavirus.
Infection with bacteria, fungus, and parasites does not result in warts. Local destructive therapy individualized according to location, type, and number—including surgical removal, electrocautery, curettage, cryotherapy, caustic solutions, x-ray treatment, and laser therapies—is used.
Vaccination is prophylaxis for warts and is not a treatment. Corticosteroids and specific antibiotic therapy are not effective in the treatment of warts. The herpes zoster virus has an affinity for posterior root ganglia, the posterior horn of the spinal cord, and skin. The zoster virus does not involve sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibers and the lateral and dorsal columns of the spinal cord. Oral antiviral agents are effective for viral infections such as herpes simplex.
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Corticosteroids are not effective for viral infections. Griseofulvin is an antifungal agent and not effective for viral infections. Antibiotics are not effective in viral diseases. Ringworm is caused by a group of closely related filamentous fungi that invade primarily the stratum corneum, hair, and nails.
Download Test bank for Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing 9th Edition by Hockenberry
They are superficial infections that live on, not in, the skin. Virus and bacterial infection are not the causative organisms for ringworm. Ringworm is not an allergic response.
Treatment with the antifungal agent griseofulvin is part of the treatment for the fungal disease ringworm.
Oral griseofulvin therapy frequently continues for weeks or months. Antibiotics, sulfonamides, and Burow solution are not effective in fungal infections. Poison ivy is a contact dermatitis that results from exposure to the oil urushiol in the plant.
Every effort is made to prevent the child from scratching because the lesions can become secondarily infected. The poison ivy produces localized, streaked or spotty, oozing, and painful impetiginous lesions. Itching is a common response. Scratching the lesions can result in secondary infections.
The lesions do not spread by contact with the blister serum or by scratching.
Scabies is caused by the scabies mite. The inflammatory response and intense itching occur after the host has become sensitized to the mite. This occurs approximately 30 to 60 days after initial contact. Edema, redness, and maceration are not observed in scabies.
Itching is generally the only manifestation of pediculosis capitis head lice. Diagnosis is made by observation of the white eggs nits on the hair shaft. Vesicles, scalp rash, and localized inflammatory response are not symptoms of head lice.
Treatment consists of the application of pediculicide and manual removal of nit cases. An extra-fine-tooth comb facilitates manual removal. It is not possible to differentiate between viable and nonviable eggs. Regular shampoo is not effective; a pediculicide is necessary.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by a tick.
Meningitis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
The tick must attach and feed for at least 1 to 2 hours to transmit the disease. The usual habitat of the tick is in heavily wooded areas. Fleas, mosquitoes, and mice or rats do not transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete spread by ticks. The early characteristic rash is erythema migrans. Tick bites should be avoided by entering tick-infested areas with caution. Light-colored clothing should be worn to identify ticks easily.
Long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks should be the attire.
Early treatment of the erythema migrans stage 1 can prevent the development of Lyme disease. Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete, not mycotic spores. Tinea capitis is characterized by lesions in the scalp configured of scaly, circumscribed patches or patchy, scaling areas of alopecia. Generally the lesions are asymptomatic but a severe, deep inflammatory reaction may occur that manifests as boggy, encrusted lesions kerions.
Impetigo contagiosa is depicted in the figure showing the vesicular lesion around the nares area that has become vesicular.
The lesions rupture easily, leaving superficial, moist erosions that tend to spread peripherally in sharply marginated irregular outlines. The exudate dries to form heavy, honey-colored crusts. The figure depicting inflammation on the cheek is cellulitis. Inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissues is characterized by intense redness, swelling, and firm infiltration.
Cellulitis may progress to abscess formation. Chickenpox is communicable through direct contact, droplet spread, and contaminated objects. Mumps is transmitted from direct contact with saliva of infected person and is most communicable before onset of swelling. The transmission and source of the viral infection exanthema subitum roseola is unknown.
Erythema infectiosum fifth disease is communicable before onset of symptoms.
249107339 Chapter 010Wong s Essentials of Pediatrics Test Bank
Acyclovir decreases the number of lesions; shortens duration of fever; and decreases itching, lethargy, and anorexia. Treating pruritus and discouraging itching minimize scarring. Aplastic anemia is not a complication of chickenpox. Strict isolation until vesicles are dried prevents spread of disease.
Acyclovir is effective in treating the number of lesions; shortening the duration of fever; and decreasing itching, lethargy, and anorexia. It is important the parent stay with the child to monitor fever.
Acyclovir lessens the severity of chickenpox. VariZIG is given only to high-risk children. VariZIG is given to high-risk children to prevent the development of chickenpox. Acyclovir decreases the severity, not the development, of chickenpox.
Varicella globulin is not effective because it is not the immune globulin. Diphenhydramine may help pruritus but not the actual chickenpox. Evidence shows vitamin A decreases morbidity and mortality in measles.
Mumps is treated with analgesics for pain and antipyretics for fever.